【Atlas101托福背景知識】地球是如何形成的?

Last Updated on 2024-02-06 by admin

準備托福要懂「地球的形成」?

托福考試涵蓋多元學科,其中地球科學是常見主題之一。這次Atlas101將為大家簡單介紹地球的形成和結構,這個主題也曾在托福考試中出現過。

地球科學涉及許多專業領域,多閱讀該領域的知識,熟悉相關的專有名詞,不只有助於托福考試,還可以更理解我們身處的自然世界,豐富自己的科學素養。

主題摘要與托福單字

✔️Earth’s Formation (地球的形成)

Scientists widely believe that billions of years ago, the explosion of a distant star created a massive cloud of dust and gas. About 99% of this material formed the sun, while the remaining substances over time coalesced to create Earth and other planets in the solar system.

科學家普遍相信,數十億年前,一顆遙遠恆星的爆炸,造成巨大的塵埃和氣體雲,其中99%的物質形成了太陽,剩下物質則歷經時間,形成地球等太陽系眾多行星。

✔️Earth’s Evolution(地球的演變)

Initially composed of high-temperature molten magma, Earth gradually cooled over hundreds of millions of years. This cooling process led to the formation of liquid water oceans as heavy elements sank towards the Earth’s center. During this evolution, Earth differentiated into several layers, with the outermost layer consisting of relatively lighter substances.

地球最初是由高溫的熔融岩漿組成,數億年後逐漸冷卻,液態水海洋慢慢形成,重元素向地球中心下沉。在這個過程中,地球分化為好幾層,其中最外層是相對較輕的物質。

✔️Earth’s Structure (地球的結構)

Earth is primarily composed of three layers: the crust, mantle, and core. The crust encompasses both oceanic and continental components, the mantle is composed of various rocks, and the core consists of a liquid outer layer and a solid inner layer, with temperatures reaching up to 50,000°C.

(地球主要由地殼、地函和地核三層組成。地殼包括海洋和陸地,地函由各種岩石構成,地核溫度高達50,000°C。)

延伸閱讀:Earth’s Formation and Structure

Billions of years ago, Earth emerged from a vast cloud of dust and gas, believed to be triggered by a mysterious event, potentially a distant star’s explosion. This initiated the formation of a solar nebula—a spinning disc  of gas and dust—that eventually gave rise to our sun. More than 99% of the nebula’s material coalesced to form the sun, while the remaining matter underwent collisions, shaping into planets, including Earth.

Initially, Earth was unrecognizable from its current form, likely existing as a predominantly molten magma. Over hundreds of millions of years, the planet cooled, forming oceans of liquid water. Heavy elements sank towards the center, leading to Earth’s differentiation into layers. 

Earth’s early atmosphere primarily comprised hydrogen and helium. As the planet changed, volcanic eruptions released water vapor, ammonia, and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Gradually, oceans formed, fostering the evolution of primitive life.

The Earth consists of three primary layers: the crust (comprising oceanic and continental components), the mantle (hot, dense, iron, and magnesium-rich rock), and the core (composed of a liquid outer core and a solid inner core made of nickel and iron, with temperatures reaching up to 50,000°C).

  • 資料來源一:https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/formation-earth/
  • 資料來源二:https://www.gsi.ie/en-ie/education/our-planet-earth/Pages/The-Earth-structure.aspx

托福考試內容涉及自然學科與人文學科,聽說讀寫每一科都會遇到,考驗考生的英文理解能力與表達能力。如果你還不知道如何準備托福考試,或想要更有效準備托福考試,可以找專業教師詢問,或與我們聯繫,讓Atlas101成為你學習上的助力,幫助你有效獲得理想托福分數!

Atlas101祝大家都能高分通過托福考試!

圖片來源:freepik

延伸閱讀中文翻譯


數十億年前,地球從一片龐大的塵埃和氣體雲中冉冉升起,人們相信這是由一場神秘事件引起的,可能是一顆遙遠恆星的爆炸。這激發了太陽星雲——一個由氣體和塵埃組成的旋轉圓盤——最終形成了我們的太陽。星雲中超過 99% 的物質合併形成了太陽,而其餘物質則經歷了碰撞,形成了包括地球在內的行星。

最初,地球的模樣與現今大相徑庭,很可能主要以熔融的岩漿形式存在。數億年來,地球冷卻下來,形成了液態水的海洋。重元素沉降至地球中心,導致地球分化為不同層次。

地球早期的大氣主要由氫和氦組成。隨著地球的變遷,火山爆發釋放水蒸氣、氨和二氧化碳到大氣中。漸漸地,海洋形成,促進了原始生命的演化。

地球的結構包括三個主要層次:地殼(包括海洋和陸地)、地函(炙熱、致密、富含鐵和鎂的岩石)和地核(由液態外核和固態內核組成,含有鎳和鐵,溫度高達50,000°C)。

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