【Atlas101雅思閱讀】鉛筆的發展

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[雅思閱讀]Pencil

The origin of the pencil can be traced back to ancient Roman times when people used a metal tool known as a “stylus” for writing and recording information. Early “styluses” were often made of copper or iron, with one end being sharp for inscribing or engraving messages and the other end smooth for erasing or smoothing the writing surface. People would use these “styluses” on wax tablets, and when needed, they could simply wipe them clean for reuse.(鉛筆最早的起源可以追溯至古羅馬時代,當時人們書寫或記錄訊息時,使用的是一種「stylus(尖筆)」金屬工具。早期「Stylus」多由以銅或鐵製成,一端是尖銳,用來刻寫或刻劃訊息;另一端圓滑,用來擦拭或平滑書寫表面。人們用「stylus」在蠟板上書寫,需要時只要輕輕擦拭,就能重新使用。)

In 1564, a hurricane struck the Cumberland region of England, uprooting many large trees. Underneath the upturned tree roots, people discovered a black mineral known as graphite. This graphite could leave a thin black layer on surfaces, and local shepherds used it to mark their sheep for identification. Soon, graphite became widely used for writing, leading to the development of various convenient writing tools and eventually giving birth to the pencil.(1564年,一場颶風襲擊英格蘭的昆布蘭地區,將許多大樹連根拔起。人們在樹根下發現了一種黑色的礦物質——石墨。這種石墨可以在物體表面留下黑色的薄層,當地牧羊人用它在羊身上畫記號來區分牲畜。之後人們廣泛使用石墨來書寫,發展出各種方便書寫的工具,催生出鉛筆的發明。)

In the 16th century, a British pencil manufacturer combined wood with a conical graphite core, creating the modern pencil that we are familiar with today. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, mechanized production significantly lowered the price of pencils, making them affordable to a wider audience. This era also saw ongoing improvements in the quality of pencil leads and the development of pencils suited for various purposes.(一家16世紀英國鉛筆製造商將木材與圓錐形鉛芯結合,創造出了我們熟悉的現代鉛筆。接著到了19世紀工業革命後,機械化生產大幅降低了鉛筆的價格,讓更多人能夠買得起,持續改良筆芯的品質或開發適合不同用途的鉛筆。)

Throughout history, many artists have been enthusiasts of the pencil. Figures like Leonardo da Vinci from the Renaissance era were renowned for their detailed and highly observant pencil sketches. Picasso frequently used pencils for sketches and drafts, showcasing his diverse artistic styles and experimental approach. Surrealist artist Salvador Dalí’s pencil drawings were filled with fantastical and dreamlike scenes, reflecting his unique visual language and imaginative world.(歷史上許多藝術家都是鉛筆愛用者。像是文藝復興時期大師達文西,他的鉛筆素描以細緻入微的細節和高度觀察力聞名。還有畢卡索,他經常用鉛筆畫素描或創作草圖。這些鉛筆作品展現他豐富的藝術風格,以及對藝術實驗的追求。超現實主義的代畫家表達利筆下的鉛筆畫作品充滿奇幻和夢幻的場景,展現了他獨特的視覺語言和幻想世界。)

In the digital age, people may no longer use pencils as frequently as in the past, but this does not diminish their value in our lives. When we need to write a special letter, create a beautiful artwork, or record an important moment, the pencil remains a reliable and indispensable tool.(在數位化時代,人們或許不再像過去一樣頻繁地使用鉛筆,但這並不減少它在我們生活中的價值。當我們需要書寫一份特別的信件、繪畫一幅美麗的畫作,或是記錄一個重要時刻時,鉛筆依舊是一個可靠的、不可或缺的工具。)

  • 資料來源:網路整理

小試身手:選擇題

看完文章了嗎?請選出正確答案

選擇題 1:

 What was the early “Stylus” made of?

A. Wood and lead

B. Copper or iron

C. Gold and silver

D. Plastic and rubber

選擇題 2:

How did Leonardo da Vinci utilize pencils during the Renaissance period?

A. He used pencils for writing his personal diaries.

B. He created art sketches and drawings with pencils.

C. He translated classical literature into pencil drawings.

D. He kept laboratory notes using pencils.

選擇題 3:

 How did the Industrial Revolution impact pencil production?

A. It led to a significant increase in pencil prices.

B. It decreased the quality and consistency of pencils.

C. It made pencils unaffordable for the general public.

D. It improved the quality and consistency of pencils while reducing their cost.

往下看答案↓↓↓↓

正確答案:

✔選擇題 1 的答案是 B) the importance of using privacy settings。文章提到許多社交媒體使用者對於如何使用他們的數據以及隱私設置的重要性知之甚少。

✔選擇題 2 的答案是 A) unintentional sharing of personal information。文章中提到缺乏對隱私設置的了解可能導致個人信息的意外洩露。

✔選擇題 3 的答案是 A) give users control over their personal data。文章中提到GDPR的主要目的是給予用戶對其個人數據的控制權。

你答對了嗎?

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